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Cardiac arrest is a life-threatening medical emergency that can strike anyone, anywhere, at any time. It is also important to have a basic understanding of cardiac arrest, its causes, symptoms, and most importantly, how to respond effectively. In this post, we aim to shed light on cardiac arrest, its implications, and the critical steps to take when faced with such a situation to increase the chances of saving lives.


What is Cardiac Arrest?

Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart suddenly stops functioning, leading to the cessation of blood flow to vital organs. Unlike a heart attack, which is caused by a blockage in the blood vessels supplying the heart, cardiac arrest is a malfunction of the heart’s electrical system. Without immediate medical intervention, it can result in death within minutes.


Cardiac Arrest Symptoms

Cardiac arrest often happens abruptly, without warning. Some signs and symptoms may include:

  1. Sudden loss of responsiveness: The person becomes unresponsive and doesn’t react to touch or sound.
  2. Absence of normal breathing: The person stops breathing or exhibits gasping for breath.
  3. Sudden collapse: The person may collapse or fall unconscious without any apparent cause.


It is crucial to remember that cardiac arrest can occur in individuals with or without pre-existing heart conditions. Prompt action is vital for increasing the chances of survival.



The Chain of Survival

The Chain of Survival represents a sequence of critical steps that, when followed promptly, can significantly increase the likelihood of saving a person experiencing cardiac arrest. The four links in the Chain of Survival are:

  1. Early recognition and immediate activation of emergency medical services (EMS): As soon as you suspect someone is experiencing cardiac arrest, call emergency services or instruct someone nearby to make the call. Every second counts in these situations.
  2. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): Begin CPR immediately. If you are trained in CPR, provide chest compressions and rescue breaths in a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths. If you are unsure or untrained, perform hands-only CPR by focusing on chest compressions at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute.
  3. Rapid defibrillation: An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that delivers an electric shock to the heart, attempting to restore a normal rhythm. If an AED is available, follow the device’s instructions and use it as soon as possible.
  4. Effective advanced life support and post-cardiac arrest care: Once professional medical help arrives, they will provide advanced life support measures and continue efforts to stabilize the person. Post-cardiac arrest care in a medical setting is critical to improve outcomes and prevent further complications.


Public Education and AED Placement: Public awareness and education are vital for improving survival rates from cardiac arrest. Communities should focus on training more individuals in basic CPR and AED usage. Schools, workplaces, and public spaces should have accessible AEDs and provide training opportunities to ensure people feel confident in using them.




Cardiac arrest is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate action. By recognizing the symptoms, activating emergency services, performing CPR, and using an AED, bystanders can play a crucial role in saving lives. Public awareness, education, and widespread availability of AEDs are essential for a society that is prepared to respond effectively to cardiac arrest. Together, let us empower ourselves with the knowledge and skills needed to be the difference between life and death in these critical situations. To know more about heart related and cardiovascular conditions, mail us at frontdesk@thelecc.com or call +234 817 365 1737.